The BIOHIT Gastrin-17 Advanced ELISA is part of the GastroPanel® family of assays - a simple blood test for Primary Care that aids the diagnosis of dyspepsia by effectively ruling out diseases of the gastric mucosa characterised by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection and atrophic gastritis.
Fasting Gastrin-17 concentration in blood reflects the integrity and function of the lower part of the stomach (the antrum). Gastrin-17 is secreted exclusively from G-cells of the antrum and duodenum. BIOHIT's monoclonal antibody only measures the biologically active amidated Gastrin-17 peptide (sulphated and non-sulphated), having a specific receptor on the surface of enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL) (cholecystokinin receptor, CCK2R). Gastrin-17 stimulates the ECL cells to release histamine into the blood circulation, which seeks the histamine receptor on the surface of the parietal cell, and stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid. The Gastrin-17 concentration in blood (during fasting) will fall when the acidity of the gastric contents rises (pH <2.5) (less than 1 pmol/l refers to increased secretion of hydrochloric acid). The Gastrin-17 value during fasting also falls in cases of antrum mucosal atrophy, where G-cells disappear. Low Gastrin-17 levels in blood during fasting may therefore indicate either high secretion of hydrochloric acid or antrum mucosal atrophy. Antrum mucosa atrophy, however, is dependent upon infection with Helicobacter pylori. If the Gastrin-17 concentration is above 7 pmol/l, it is usually because of decreased secretion of hydrochloric acid.
Increased secretion of hydrochloric acid may increase the risk of, and complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In the case of reflux disease, stomach contents are regurgitated into the oesophagus, particularly if the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) is weak. This could result in ulcerative oesophagitis, and so-called Barrett's oesophagus, which if untreated are risk factors of oesophageal cancer.
Use Gastrin-17 as part of the complete GastroPanel® to help diagnose:
Healthy stomach mucosa. When the stomach mucosa is healthy, the cause of stomach symptoms is most likely to be functional dyspepsia or disease outside the stomach.
H. pylori infection
Atrophic gastritis (severely damaged and dysfunctional stomach mucosa) and specifically the location of the disease, e.g. corpus, antrum, or both mucosa
GastroPanel® consists of four ELISAs and can be set up in any local laboratory or can be requested via BIOHIT's Service Laboratory.